Transactive energy is a novel approach for energy management and trading, which can be used in microgrids to facilitate the integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in existing networks. The key feature in transactive energy is using market-based solutions for energy management. Hence, an appropriate transactive energy market (TEM) framework should be designed to enable and incentivize DER owners to participate in different markets. The efficient implementation of TEM for microgrid energy management encompasses the application of a variety of design principles. In this rapidly developing area, this paper presents a complete proposal of the TEM as a framework for the design, implementation, and deployment of transactive energy solutions for energy management in microgrids. In particular, we outline the requirements to design an effective market mechanism for the TEM. The applicability of this perspective is demonstrated through the introduction of the Monash Microgrid as a real-world implementation of a TEM solution, where a complete hardware and software foundation is presented as a platform to deploy a market-based solution for microgrid energy management. This is further illustrated through an example scenario, where the application of TEM is discussed to demonstrate the impact of considered design choices on achieving desired objectives.